The caste system is social stratification done on a racial basis. Not only the Asian countries but throughout the world, this division represents graded societies based on hereditary groups. But, the defining terms are significantly less painful and awful. And, our dear homeland is no exception to this inhuman system. The caste system emerged as a global phenomenon from times unknown.
As history puts it, the Aryans introduced the caste system as a means of controlling the local populations. The Aryans were the first ones who defined fundamental roles in society, which were then assigned to different groups of people. Amongst different caste systems prevalent on a global scale, the Hindu caste system in India presents a unique character. It is opposed to other societal groupings where separation is inter-racial.
The Indian caste system carries out inter-caste differentiation based on financial status and standard of living of the members. This system is relentless and abominable by even the lowest standards of humanity. The lower-caste people lead their life in unspeakable conditions of profound poverty and social disadvantage.
There would be almost none putting up an argument in support of the abject caste system prevalent within the Indian society. Whatever the region or territory, this unlawful means of running the society has amassed more demerits than merits. In its long history, the division of masses based on this type of discrimination has vainly molted itself several times over.
Here, we list down some of the more conspicuous discrepancies well afforded by the caste division. Quite apparently, the caste system in the South Asian region possesses a long history and a multitude of forms. Pakistanis, more or less, share the same cultural roots as their Indian counterparts. In Pakistan, the caste system is founded on birth. Castes are based on the profession existing in the community.
Caste system basically classifies people socially and divides them on the basis of inherited social status. Very many societies could be described in this way. Within a caste system, people are strictly expected to marry and interact with people of the same social class. Although scores of different castes exist in our society, the top 7 castes in Pakistan need to be hinted at. Butt is a common surname mostly used in the Kashmir Valley.
In Pakistani Punjab, the local Punjabis use Butt as a collective terminology. The Butt present with a peculiar psyche to the people. They are generally thought of as arrogant and proud. They are beautiful and attractive physically and are healthy food lovers. The Jutt people are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern Pakistan.The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in by Babura warrior chieftain from what today is Uzbekistanwho employed aid from the neighboring Safavid - and Ottoman empires,  to defeat the Sultan of DelhiIbrahim Lodhiin the First Battle of Panipatand to sweep down the plains of Upper India.
The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated toto the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar. Reduced subsequently, especially during the East India Company rule in India, to the region in and around Old Delhithe empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of Although the Mughal empire was created and sustained by military warfare,    it did not vigorously suppress the cultures and peoples it came to rule; rather it equalized and placated them through new administrative practices,   and diverse ruling elites, leading to more efficient, centralised, and standardized rule.
The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire,  which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, and this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves. Another name for the empire was Hindustanwhich was documented in the Ain-i-Akbariand which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire.
The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur reigned —a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur the founder of the Timurid Empire on his father's side, and from Genghis Khan on his mother's side.
The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun reigned —who was forced into exile in Persia by rebels. Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River.
He increased trade with European trading companies. Jahangir born Salim,  reigned — was born to Akbar and his wife Mariam-uz-Zamanian Indian Rajput princess. The cost of maintaining the court, however, began to exceed the revenue coming in. Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikohbecame regent inas a result of his father's illness.
With the support of the Islamic orthodoxy, however, a younger son of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb reigned —seized the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in and had him executed. During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more and became the world's most powerful economy.
Aurangzeb fully established sharia by compiling the Fatwa Alamgiri. He expanded the empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, [ citation needed ] but at his death in"many parts of the empire were in open revolt". Aurangzeb's son, Bahadur Shah Irepealed the religious policies of his father and attempted to reform the administration.
In alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne". During the reign of Muhammad Shah reigned —the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. The far-off Indian campaign of Nadir Shahwho had previously reestablished Iranian suzerainty over most of West Asia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, culminated with the Sack of Delhi and shattered the remnants of Mughal power and prestige.
Many of the empire's elites now sought to control their own affairs, and broke away to form independent kingdoms. Not only the Muslim gentry, but the Maratha, Hindu, and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgments of the emperor as the sovereign of India. Meanwhile, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, involved themselves and the state in global conflicts, leading only to defeat and loss of territory during the Carnatic Wars and the Bengal War.
Inthe Marathas recaptured Delhi from Afghan control and in they officially became the protectors of the emperor in Delhi,  a state of affairs that continued until after the Third Anglo-Maratha War. After a crushing defeat in the war of — which he nominally led, the last Mughal, Bahadur Shah Zafarwas deposed by the British East India Company and exiled in Historians have offered numerous explanations for the rapid collapse of the Mughal Empire between andafter a century of growth and prosperity.
In fiscal terms, the throne lost the revenues needed to pay its chief officers, the emirs nobles and their entourages. The emperor lost authority, as the widely scattered imperial officers lost confidence in the central authorities, and made their own deals with local men of influence.
The imperial army bogged down in long, futile wars against the more aggressive Marathaslost its fighting spirit. Finally came a series of violent political feuds over control of the throne. After the execution of Emperor Farrukhsiyar inlocal Mughal successor states took power in region after region. Contemporary chroniclers bewailed the decay they witnessed, a theme picked up by the first British historians who wanted to underscore the need for a British-led rejuvenation.
Since the s historians have taken multiple approaches to the decline, with little consensus on which factor was dominant. The psychological interpretations emphasise depravity in high places, excessive luxury, and increasingly narrow views that left the rulers unprepared for an external challenge.
A Marxist school led by Irfan Habib and based at Aligarh Muslim University emphasises excessive exploitation of the peasantry by the rich, which stripped away the will and the means to support the regime. Jeffrey G.After that time it continued to exist as a considerably reduced and increasingly powerless entity until the midth century. The Mughal dynasty was notable for its more than two centuries of effective rule over much of India; for the ability of its rulers, who through seven generations maintained a record of unusual talent; and for its administrative organization.
A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals, who were Muslimsto integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state. The Mughal Empire reached across much of the Indian subcontinent. By the death of Akbarthe third Mughal ruler, the Mughal Empire extended from Afghanistan to the Bay of Bengal and southward to what is now Gujarat state and the northern Deccan region of India.
From there he conquered the Punjab and subsequently unseated the Delhi sultanate before extending his rule across northern India. Much of its territory fell under the control of the Marathas and then the British. The Mughal Empire was important for bringing almost the entire Indian subcontinent under one domain, drawing the subcontinent's regions together through enhanced overland and coastal trading networks.
It was also known for its cultural influence and its architectural achievements most famously, the Taj Mahal. The following year he overwhelmed the Rajput confederacy under Rana Sanga of Mewar, and in he defeated the Afghans of what are now eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states. At his death in he controlled all of northern India from the Indus River on the west to Bihar on the east and from the Himalayas south to Gwalior.
The greatest of the Mughal emperors and an extremely capable ruler, Akbar reestablished and consolidated the Mughal Empire.
Through incessant warfare, he was able to annex all of northern and part of central India, but he adopted conciliatory policies toward his Hindu subjects and sought to enlist them in his armies and government service. The political, administrative, and military structures that he created to govern the empire were the chief factor behind its continued survival for another century and a half.
His reign marked the cultural zenith of Mughal rule, but his military expeditions brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. Aurangzeb annexed the Muslim Deccan kingdoms of Vijayapura Bijapur and Golconda and thereby brought the empire to its greatest extent, but his political and religious intolerance laid the seeds of its decline.
He excluded Hindus from public office and destroyed their schools and temples, while his persecution of the Sikhs of the Punjab turned that sect against Muslim rule and roused rebellions among the RajputsSikhs, and Marathas. The heavy taxes he levied steadily impoverished the farming population, and a steady decay in the quality of Mughal government was thus matched by a corresponding economic decline.
When Aurangzeb died inhe had failed to crush the Marathas of the Deccan, and his authority was disputed throughout his dominions. Mughal rule was reduced to only a small area around Delhi, which passed under Maratha and then British control. Mughal dynasty. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
Mughal dynasty India . Top Questions. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The Mughal Empire at its zenith commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent.The caste system is one of the unique features in Indian Society. Its root can be traced back to thousands of years.
Thus, caste is concerned with birth. There are many theories like traditional, racial, political, occupational, evolutionary etc which try to explain the caste system in India. According to this theory, the caste system is of divine origin. It says the caste system is an extension of the varna system, where the 4 varnas originated from the body of Bramha. Kshatriyas, or the warriors and rulers, came from his arms. Vaishyas, or the traders, were created from his thighs.
The mouth signifies its use for preaching, learning etc, the arms — protections, thighs — to cultivate or business, feet — helps the whole body, so the duty of the Shudras is to serve all the others.
The sub-castes emerged later due to intermarriages between the 4 varnas. The Sanskrit word for caste is varna which means colour. The caste stratification of the Indian society had its origin in the chaturvarna system — Brahmins, Kashtriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Indian sociologist D. Rig Vedic literature stresses very significantly the differences between the Arya and non-Aryans Dasanot only in their complexion but also in their speech, religious practices, and physical features.
The Varna system prevalent during the Vedic period was mainly based on division of labour and occupation. Brahma and Kshatra represented the poet-priest and the warrior-chief.
Vis comprised all the common people. The Sudra class represented domestic servants. According to this theory, the caste system is a clever device invented by the Brahmins in order to place themselves on the highest ladder of social hierarchy.
The Brahmins even added the concept of spiritual merit of the king, through the priest or purohit in order to get the support of the ruler of the land. Caste hierarchy is according to the occupation. Those professions which were regarded as better and respectable made the persons who performed them superior to those who were engaged in dirty professions. According to this theory, the caste system did not come into existence all of a sudden or at a particular date.
It is the result of a long process of social evolution. Note: It is from the post-Vedic period, the old distinction of Arya and Sudra appears as Dvija and Sudra, The first three classes are called Dvija twice-born because they have to go through the initiation ceremony which is symbolic of rebirth.The caste system is a powerful institution prevalent in Indian society today, and was formerly prevalent in Nepal until a law passed in made it illegal to discriminate against other castes.
For many Indians, caste is a major aspect of their identity. It is something one is born into. People are expected to marry and in some places, even socialize within their own caste. A person inherits their parents' caste, and it cannot change regardless of what job they have or how much wealth they accumulate. Modern caste identity is something akin to ethnicity or race, and as with race, some caste groups are distinctly disadvantaged.
And though there is a strong relationship between caste, occupation, and economic status, it is not as homogeneous or simple a system as Westerners are led to believe. Its power varies across India and across time. People can and have taken occupations outside those associated with their caste, historically as well as in the present day. However, these are not the castes. This is a common misconception. The concept of jati is closer to the actuality of caste, and in fact the two words "jati" and "caste" are often used interchangeably in India.
There is not always a clear-cut hierarchy because there are a lot of jatis, and they change across region and time. Castes can also arise from various ethnic, tribal, or religious divisions i. In addition, there can be overlap and redundancy, with more than one jati occupying the same "niche" of occupation or function.
Although the British, relying on the Manusmriti to govern Indians, did use the varna system for categorizing the castes, varna has little practical relevance today except in the case of the brahmins and the dalits.
It was a simple theoretical system imposed imperfectly upon a large and complex real one. So, because people are not tropes that can be neatly cataloged, the two concepts of Jati and Varna are not inflexibly linked, and the lines can be blurred, with some castes not clearly belonging in a varna, some belonging to multiple, and some moving around in status.
The Indian Government classifies people into castes in order to run affirmative action programs as it reserves some seats in the various national and state legislatures for disadvantaged castes, as well as universities.
This is subject to controversy similar to debates about affirmative action in the United States. Intermarriage between castes does take place, but is unusual.
With arranged marriages, often people will specify what caste they want potential partners to belong to. Caste-based political parties also exist. See Knight Fever for hereditary peerage and the associated noble titles along with non-hereditary titles in BritainFantastic Caste System for fictional caste systems not related to Indian traditions, Hive Caste System for the hierarchy determined by birth in an insect society, and Blue Blood for high-born families in any setting.
Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this. Get Known if you don't have an account. The Mahabharata : Karna is condemned to not participate in a match of arms because he is the son of a charioteer by Kuru elders and the Pandavas. He is rejected by Draupadi as a potential suitor because of his origin. He becomes a warrior and a King regardless due to the help of Duryodhana, the serial antagonist who gifts him the kingdom of Anga and his superior archery skills.
It is later revealed that he was actually the son of Kunti and therefore half-brother to the Pandavas. In the expanded version, Krishna, the Avatar is criticized by Uttanka, a brahmin, for not having stopped the Kurushetra war and his partiality towards the Pandavas. Krishna is impressed by his argument and promises him that he would get water whenever he is thirsty.
Uttanka wanders in the desert and is thirsty. He sees a untouchable who walks up to him and offers him water in a bag made of animal skin.The Mughal or Moguls were once known as a community of soldiers who are now a landowning community.
The community adopted northern India as its home and gradually spread over different parts. In Rajasthan, the Mughal claim that their ancestors migrated from Egypt around The Mughal trace their descent from Timur who raided and devastated India in The Mughal are one of four main Muslim communities in India, the other three being Pathan, Sheikh and Sayyad, and place themselves as superior to the others except the Sayyad.
They are often referred to by the surnames Mirza learned and Beg nobleman. They speak Urdu and Hindi. Uttar Pradesh has largest Mughal populationIn Gujarat, where they number around 12, they live mainly in Baroda, Ahmedabad, Surat and Khambat. They numberin Andhra Pradesh, living Machilipatnam and Hyderabad.
In Rajasthan where their population is around 41, the Mughal are largely distributed in the Bikaner district. Their main occupation today is agriculture and animal husbandry. Their secondary occupation is transporting goods as well as people on camel-drawn carts. In Gujarat, they work as clerks, teachers and for private enterprise.
They are also self-employed — cutting and polishing of precious and semi-precious stones for jewelry. Those of Uttar Pradesh own mango orchards, along with government and private service, business, skilled labour and trade. Child labour is extremely rare. Some Mughal have fine skills in arts and crafts such as model-making, ivory carving, engraving, weaving, embroidery, zari silver and gold thread workpottery and music.
The Mughal eat meat except pork which is forbidden for religious reasons. Some, such as those of Delhi, do not eat fish that have no scales. Their diet consists of wheat, rice, maize, bajra milletpulses, vegetables, milk and dairy products and seasonal fruit. The Mughlai cuisine is well known and they have special dishes such as biryani, rumali roti, and kebabs. Both men and women chew betel, often with scented tobacco. Some men smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol.
The Mughal are open to formal education for their children and make use of medical facilities, clean drinking water, electricity, self-employment schemes, and the public distribution system for essential commodities and banking schemes provided by the government. The Mughal of Jammu and Kashmir still use indigenous medicines for common ailments. There has been an increased responsiveness to family planning. The Mughal marry only within their community.
There are a number of subgroups among this community: in Uttar Pradesh the subgroups are Chagtai, Dazalbaksh and Turkman.This historical script was used for writing legal, administrative and private records.
Since as early as the dawn of Medieval IndiaKayasthas have occupied the highest government offices, serving as ministers and advisors of the middle kingdoms of India and the Mughal Empireand holding important administrative positions during the British Raj.
Sheth, the former director of the Center for the Study of Developing Societies in India CSDSlists Indian communities that constituted the middle class and were traditionally " urban and professional " following professions like doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers, etc. There are many theories about the origin of the Kayastha sub-groups.
List of Pakistani family names
Some texts refer to them as a caste of scribesrecruited in the beginning from the Brahmin  Kshatriya   and Vaishya castes but eventually forming distinct sub-castes in northern and western India. They have therefore also been called a umbrella caste with mixture of varnas in the sense that it is formed of various sub-groups of different varna status competing with Brahmins for the highest administrative officers in medieval India.
The larger group of Northern India trace their lineage from the sons of Chitragupta and are thus referred as Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas. Historically, various subcastes had consolidated by the 11 th - 12 th centuries CE  i. Bhattacharya notes that Bengali Kayasthas were different from "North-Indian Gaudas" who were found in almost all districts lying between Delhi and Patna, and identifies Bhatnagar Kayasthas as a section of the Gauda Kayasthas.
The Ambashtha Kayasthas found chiefly in Southern BiharCrooke suggests "may be connected with the old Ambastha caste" as some Kayasthas are also associated with the practice of medicine and surgery.
The Bengali Kayasthas are considered an offshoot of the former group of Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthasclaiming lineage from migrants to Bengal from the ancient city of Kannauj who came at the request of Sena Dynasty kings in the 10th century. Sharma further states:. Originally the professions of Kayastha scribe and Vaidya physician were not restricted and could be followed by people of different varnas including the brahmanas.
So there is every probability that a number of brahmana families were mixed up with members of other varnas in forming the present Kayastha and Vaidya communities of Bengal.
The System of Caste under Mughal India
As per Brahminical opinions and texts, they arose solely from the Kshatriya varna. This as well as their 'vedokta' has been formally ratified by the verdicts of the Brahmin councils of Pune and Varanasi, by Bajirao II and finally the Shankaracharya himself. Although there's no evidence that a caste or community of scribes existed in ancient India, there are multiple instances where those performing secretarial functions were classed together such as in the Arthashastra the phrase 'samkhayayka-lekhaka-adi-vargas ca It is stated in the Arthashastra that superintendents should carry out their tasks, accompanied by accountants samkhyayakascribes lekhakaexaminers of coins rupadarsakareceivers of balances nivi - grahaka and supervisors uttaradhyaksah.
Brahmanical religious texts refer to the Kayasthas as a caste responsible for writing secular documents and maintaining records from the 7th century onward. Under the Gahadavalas of KannaujKayasthas had come to acquire prominent places in the court and officialdom and some were financially well-off to commission the construction of temples, while others were well-versed in the requisite fields of Vedic lore to earn the title of pandita for themselves. In Bengal, during the reign of the Gupta Empire beginning in the 4th century, when systematic and large-scale colonization by Indo-Aryan Kayasthas and Brahmins first took place, Kayasthas were brought over by the Guptas to help manage the affairs of state.
After the Muslim conquest of India, they mastered Persian which became the official language of the Mughal courts. One of the most notable north-Indian Kayasthas of the Mughal period was Raja Todar MalEmperor Akbar's finance minister and one of the court's nine Navaratnaswho is credited with establishing the Mughal revenue system.
Bengali Kayasthas had been the dominant landholding caste prior to the Muslim conquest, and continued this role under Muslim rule.
Indeed, Muslim rulers had from a very early time confirmed the Kayasthas in their ancient role as landholders and political intermediaries. Bengali Kayasthas served as treasury officials and wazirs government ministers under Mughal rule. Political scientist U. Razia Akter Banu writes that, partly because of Muslim sultans ' satisfaction with them as technocrats, many Bengali Kayasthas in the administration became zamindars and jagirdars.
Maharaja Pratapadityathe King of Jessore who declared independence from Mughal rule in the early 17th century, was a Bengali Kayastha. During the British Raj, Kayasthas continued to proliferate in public administration, qualifying for the highest executive and judicial offices open to Indians  including Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha   KCSIPCKCthe first and only Indian ever to be elevated to the hereditary peerage.